Tachycardia | MEDICH
Tachycardia

Tachycardia

If the heart beats abnormally fast – this is tachycardia. A strong beat is not a disease – it is either a physiological condition of the body, or a symptom of one of many diseases.

In the muscle there is a sinus node that regulates the rhythm of the contractions of the heart. The sinus is sensitive to any external and internal stimuli. Therefore, the heartbeat becomes more frequent with excitement, under stress, with an increase in ambient temperature or body temperature, with severe blood loss, with a rapid climb up the stairs and in other cases. This is a manifestation of normal physiological tachycardia.

Tachycardia of the heart: what is it? Normally, in an adult, the heart contracts about 60-80 times per minute. The diagnosis is made by increasing this indicator to 100 or more compressions in 60 seconds. In some cases, the heartbeat in tachycardia exceeds 190-230 beats per minute. Such an abnormal heartbeat greatly wears out the heart, causes oxygen starvation of the whole organism and fainting weakness in the patient.

Pathological types of tachycardia include sinus and paroxysmal.

In some cases, the sinus node begins to fail, causing it to beat faster than necessary. The heartbeat accelerates to 140-180 beats per minute.

This is not a disease, but a certain state of the body that normalizes if harmful conditions of life are eliminated, sleep and nutrition are established, and bad habits are abandoned.

There is sinus tachycardia in various situations:

  • with a lack of potassium or magnesium in the body;
  • with overwork and chronic insomnia;
  • with prolonged exposure to stress;
  • in acute painful conditions of the body (poisoning, infectious disease, with dangerous blood loss, etc.).

Treatment of sinus tachycardia consists in taking sedatives and herbal preparations and establishing a sparing diet and rest.

In those cases when the patient’s palpitations cause lightheadedness, antiarrhythmic treatment is are prescribed.

Paroxysm is a dangerous condition for the body, which in many cases requires emergency medical intervention and hospitalization of the patient.

With paroxysm, a different part of the heart performs the sinus function: the ventricles or the atrium. In this case, the likelihood that the sinus nerve node will “straighten” the heart rhythm decreases, and the attack can last for days. In severe cases, it is necessary to carry out shock therapy of the heart with an electric discharge. Under the influence of electric current, the heart stops and begins to work again. In most cases, after electroshock, the sinus resumes normal heart function.

Paroxysmal tachycardia occurs as a manifestation of disease.

Ventricular one appears with an abnormal state of the heart muscle: sclerosis, atrophy, necrotia, the appearance of scar tissue (myocraditis, coronary disease, heart defects, myocardial infarction, etc.).

Supraventricular tachycardia is a sign of disorders in the sympathetic division of the nervous system.

Treatment of tachycardia paroxysm is carried out in a hospital, as urgent resuscitation measures may be required.

Causes

Physiological tachycardia accompanies violent emotional states, fast running, climbing to a height, etc.

Sinus tachycardia appears as a reaction to various painful conditions of the body:

  • neurosis and depression;
  • poisoning;
  • thyrotoxicosis (the content of thyroid hormones in the body increases abnormally);
  • pheochromocytoma (a tumor in the adrenal gland);
  • oxygen starvation;
  • heart diseases;
  • high body temperature or the environment;
  • dangerous blood loss.

Paroxysmal tachycardia appears when the heart and blood vessels are disturbed:

  • vegetovascular dystonia;
  • myocarditis;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • ischemia;
  • hypertension;
  • heart disease;
  • disorders in the sympathetic branches of the nervous system.

Tachycardia requires treatment if it appears without any obvious reason: a person feels well and is in a calm state or sleeps.

What symptoms warn of danger?

  • shortness of breath (hard to inhale);
  • dizzy;
  • there are noises in the head, in the ears;
  • darkens in the eyes;
  • fainting weakness, loss of consciousness;

The patient needs to call an ambulance, and before her arrival should:

  • free the neck and chest;
  • open a window;
  • apply cold to forehead;
  • wash yourself with ice water.

Diagnostics

Only a cardiologist can determine how to treat heart tachycardia. It is useless to treat tachycardia itself – the cause of the increased heartbeat should be eliminated.

To diagnose the underlying disease, a number of examinations are prescribed:

  • ECG (daily according to Holter, 2-3-day monitoring);
  • blood and urine tests;
  • analysis to detect thyroid hormone levels;
  • ultrasound of the heart to detect abnormalities in the structure of the heart or its departments;

Treatment

To eliminate tachycardia, a disease is treated that causes an increased heartbeat.

It is recommended to establish a gentle mode:

  1. A full night’s sleep for at least 8 hours.
  2. Refusal of every bad habit, including the use of strong tea or coffee.
  3. Eat better 5 times a day, little by little. Preference is given to simple low-fat foods and greens.
  4. Nervous overwork and unrest should be avoided.

If tachycardia occurs, you should undergo a medical examination to exclude the occurrence of a serious disease.

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