Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer is another oncological disease of the abdominal organs, which often affects people all over the world. The disease develops from 1 to 4 stages and is accompanied by severe fatigue, weight loss and pain in the abdomen.


 There are four stages of this disease:

  1.  If cancer in the form of a tumor or ulcer has small dimensions, mobile and occupies a clearly limited portion of the mucosa. By the degree of distribution it does not penetrate deeper than the submucosal layer. Regional and distant metastases are not determined.
  2. Stage 2A is determined if the cancerous tumor extends to a region from 1/3 to 1/2 of the mucosal circumference, but it is located strictly within the intestinal lumen and its wall. There is no metastatic lesion.
  3. Stage 2B. The principal difference of this stage is that there are already metastases to the regional cavernous lymph nodes. The primary tumor has dimensions similar to stage 2A, or less.
  4. Stage 3A. The tumor occupies more than half of the circumference of the rectum. The depth of germination is characterized by the involvement of the whole organ wall and the peritopulmonary tissue in the tumor process. In this case, single metastases are registered in lymph nodes of the first order. Stage 3B. The size and depth of the tumor are different. In this case, multiple metastatic foci in all rectal lymphatic reservoirs are recorded;
  5. Stage 4 can be presented either as a tumor of any size in the presence of distant metastases in internal organs and lymph nodes, or a disintegrating tumor with destruction of the rectum and germination through the surrounding tissues of the pelvic floor in combination with regional metastases.


All oncological diseases are similar between themselves: no matter what part of the human body they hit, their primary symptomatology is insignificant and similar to other less serious diseases. In addition, it is impossible to indicate the exact cause of cancer in the body. Usually, there is a combination of several adverse factors that stimulate the formation of tumors. Cancer of the large and small bowel is a common disease that affects both young people and adults.

The factors that stimulate the appearance of the disease

  • diets;
  • heredity;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the large bowel: chronic proctitis and Crohn’s disease;
  • polyps of the bowel;
  • intestinal metaplasia of epithelium.

Main symptoms

Cancer of the large and small bowel has similar symptoms, such as chronic stool disorder, abdominal pain and general deterioration of health (weakness, weight loss, pale skin, rapid fatigue). That is why, if you have any changes in your state of health, it is important to contact a specialist immediately.

The disease has such symptoms:

  • discharge from the anal canal;
  • soreness in defecation (fecal secretion process);
  • gas and stool incontinence.
  • bleeding (admixtures of blood in the feces are in the initial stages of the disease, impurities of pus and mucus can occur in the 3rd and 4th stages);
  • possible abnormalities of the functions of surrounding organs (for example, urinary incontinence)

Some patients have an aversion to meat products. Scientists and doctors explain this by the fact that during the digestion of animal food (meat in the first place), a number of carcinogens are formed which with prolonged contact with the gastric mucosa promote metaplasia of the epithelium.

Treatment with radiation therapy

Theoretically, it seems that nothing is easier than removing the diagnosed tumor in time from the patient’s body, and slowly helping him/her to return to normal life. But, unfortunately, not always surgical intervention, like chemotherapy, will be the most effective and safe method of cancer treatment.

The method of modern radiotherapy (radiotherapy) is very popular in modern oncology. Radiotherapy is a method of treating tumorous and non-tumorous diseases with the help of ionizing radiation, which destroys cancer cells. Radiation therapy helps to reduce the size of the tumor and significantly reduces the possibility of insemination by malignant intestinal cells during the operation.

In the case of rectal cancer, radiotherapy is recommended after chemotherapy or surgery. Due to its accuracy, radiotherapy acts exclusively on the tumor, without harming nearby organs. Thus, radiotherapy can completely destroy the tumor.

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