Bradycardia is a slowdown in heart rate, a decrease in heart rate to the level of 30-50 beats per minute.
The disease can be of several types:
- Relative bradycardia of the heart (occurs after physical exertion, with an increase in body temperature, infections, meningitis, injuries). This category includes the bradycardia of athletes.
- Absolute bradycardia (the heart always beats pathologically slowly, regardless of the circumstances).
- Extracardiac bradycardia (accompanying diseases of internal organs, myxedema, neurological diseases).
- Moderate bradycardia (diagnosed in patients with respiratory arrhythmia).
Heart bradycardia can be caused by:
- exposure to the body of foreign substances, systemic diseases;
- disorders of the heart.
The causes of bradycardia include:
- intensive sports training;
- myocardial infarction, heart failure, heart defects, inflammation of the heart muscle, cardiomyopathy;
- insufficient oxygen supply caused by respiratory diseases;
- endocrine pathologies (diabetes);
- violations in the functioning of the central nervous system;
- cardiac glycosides, diuretics;
- bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking);
- electrolyte abnormalities.
In some cases, a slow heartbeat occurs for no apparent reason. Then cardiologists talk about idiopathic sinus bradycardia.
Bradycardia usually occurs:
- slowing heart rate to 30-50 beats per minute;
- temporary memory impairment;
- short-term visual impairment;
- confused thinking;
- violation of concentration;
- loss of consciousness;
- darkening of the eyes;
Knowing the symptoms, it becomes clear how bradycardia is dangerous. So, if the pulse rate drops to 40 beats per minute, circulatory failure occurs. As a result, the brain and internal organs begin to experience an acute lack of oxygen. If the patient is not provided with timely medical assistance, a complete cessation of breathing is possible.
If you find yourself having similar symptoms, immediately consult a doctor. It is easier to prevent illness than to deal with the consequences.
During the diagnosis of bradycardia, the patient may be prescribed:
- general blood analysis;
- control of electrolyte balance;
- verification of thyroid function;
- orthostatic tests;
- stress test;
- electrophysiological testing;
- study of the activity of the heart;
- bicycle ergometry (ECG recording is performed during exercise).
Usually problems with the diagnosis of “bradycardia” does not occur. If a slow heartbeat is detected, an electrocardiography is immediately performed, which helps to clarify the situation.
Bradycardia can be divided into:
- caused by the blockade of the excitation: between the atrium and the sinus node (disruption of sinus auricular conductivity); between the ventricle and atrium (atrioventricular conduction is disturbed).
Sinus bradycardia of the heart is characterized by:
- lack of venous pulse (different in frequency from arterial);
- inconstancy (after physical exertion / administration of atropine, the heart rate is quickly restored);
- irritation of the vagus nerve (there is pressure on the eyeballs, carotid artery).
On an ECG sinus bradycardia is determined by the presence of an unchanged P wave (preceded by the ventricular complex) with a normal time of atrioventricular conductivity (0.15-0.2 sec.).
In case of illness, patients complain of:
- lack of air;
- slow pulse (about 40 beats per minute);
- feeling of fear;
Symptoms of sinus bradycardia are not always pronounced.
Pathology indicates the presence of serious organic disorders. It is dominated by the following symptoms:
- irregular heart rhythm (may double);
- no deformation of the ECG teeth.
In violation of atrioventricular conductivity, the following symptoms are observed:
- heart rate is less than 40 beats per minute;
- there is a very large amplitude of blood pressure with increased systolic pressure;
- irritation of the vagus nerve, exercise and the introduction of atropine does not affect the frequency of the rhythm;
- during the inspection the phenomenon of “gun tone” is revealed.
Treatment of bradycardia is determined by the severity of the pathology, age and the patient’s health. In certain situations, only restorative medicines and diets are prescribed, which provide for the rejection of sweet and fatty foods. Surgical method is used if the disease is life threatening, with the ineffectiveness of medical therapy.
When bradycardia it is important to adhere to a special power system. The daily diet should include:
- vegetables (carrots, parsley, cabbage);
- fruits (bananas, oranges, apples);
- lean meats;
- dairy products;
- cereals (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal).
When bradycardia it is necessary to abandon:
- canned food;
- fried, fatty, salty;
- sweets, flour products;
- cranberries, currants, cherries, cherries, apricots.
If you do not start treatment for bradycardia in a timely manner, the risk of the following complications is high:
- respiratory arrest;
- frequent syncope (Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome);
- cardiac arrest;
- coronary heart disease;
- circulatory failure.
Death is possible.
The risk groups are:
- elderly people;
- professional athletes;
- people taking medicines to slow heart rate;
- people working in hazardous industries.
For the prevention of disease patients are recommended:
- monitor heart rate, blood pressure;
- avoid excessive consumption of products containing salt and fats;
- do regular strengthening exercises;
- more time to stay in the fresh air;
- annually undergo examination by a cardiologist;
- stop smoking, alcoholic beverages.