Surgeons have alarming statistics: among the total number of people who received burns, more than 30–35% are children, and almost half of them are very small – up to three years old.
Young children are often burned with hot liquids – milk, tea, soup, water. It happens that by negligence the parents put the baby in a hot bath, without first trying the water at least to the touch. There are frequent cases of burns in infants when they try to warm them with heating pads, forgetting that the baby’s skin is more sensitive to high temperature than the skin of an adult. In places of deep burns, especially on the fingers and feet, or in the area of large joints, coarse scars appear that restrict movement, interfere with the blood supply, and impede the normal development of the child. It is not always possible to eliminate these serious consequences with the help of multiple surgical operations.
From two years old, they become very mobile and inquisitive. They are attracted by steam from a pan or kettle, a shiny electric iron, a hot stove, an electrical outlet, protruding bare wires. They want to touch everything themselves. And the result is often sad: deep burns, disfiguring scars, deformity, and sometimes even amputation of one or several fingers.
Older children, especially schoolchildren, are more likely to suffer from open flame burns. Pyrotechnic fun with gunpowder, explosive mixtures, kindling a fire or stove with the help of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel almost always turn into a disaster.
Children cannot appreciate the danger posed by fire, hot liquids, chemicals, electricity. To stop dangerous games, adults are obliged to warn trouble. But such an alarming fact draws attention to itself: burns in children of all ages often occur on Saturdays and Sundays, when parents are at home. This indicates that adults are not always vigilant, and their carelessness cost them too much.
If the misfortune has already happened and the child has been burned, do not self-medicate. Do not lubricate the damaged skin with any fat, do not use any home remedies. In cases where the lesion on the arm or leg, for example, is limited, immediately place the arm or leg in cold water for a few minutes, then gently blot dry the skin with a clean soft cloth, apply a clean, better sterile, dry dressing and take the child to medical institution.
It is important to note that a small burn of a child can cause shock, sometimes a fatal one. In case of extensive burns, immediately release the victim from the clothing, cutting, rather than removing it, so as not to damage the formed blisters. Then wrap the child in a clean sheet and immediately deliver it to the hospital. This is necessary because the burn shock can only be recognized by a doctor and requires intensive treatment in the hospital.
Since the mechanisms of antimicrobial protection have not yet been formed, an infection that has entered its body through the burnt surface often leads to sepsis (general blood infection). To prevent this terrible complication and to take the necessary medical measures in time is also possible only in a hospital setting.