Care about the health of the baby from the earliest days of its life lies on the shoulders of parents. Last but not least, it is important for them to provide the child with a full-fledged diet containing all the substances and trace elements necessary for growth and development. These include iron, the lack of which can cause a health hazard.
What are the features of the occurrence and development of anemia in children?
In the process of fetal development, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrients through the placenta of the mother. At this stage, the prerequisites for the development of iron deficiency anemia may occur due to uteroplacental insufficiency, as well as iron deficiency in a woman’s body. Shortly before being born, the baby creates its own “reserves” of this element, which should be enough for the first 4-6 months, before entering the feeding with breastfeeding. A premature baby does not have time to accumulate the required amount of the substance, therefore, up to 85% of prematurely born children are at risk for the development of anemia. Improper eating habits can trigger the onset of the syndrome after birth. Upon reaching the age of six months, even breast milk cannot provide the necessary amount of iron. If you do not fill the gap with the help of complementary foods, then the development of anemia is inevitable. At a later age, the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is often caused by a change in the hormonal background of the child during puberty. For girls, this period is especially dangerous – the first menstruation, like any blood loss, provokes a decrease in the concentration of iron in the body. In addition, immunity suffers. It contributes to the incidence of ARVI and intestinal infections in both early and older age. The presence of iron deficiency anemia can be determined by the first symptoms and using laboratory tests.
One of the main signs of the development of iron deficiency syndrome in a child is unusual pallor and dry skin, brittle nails. Loss of appetite, muscle tone (as well as muscle pain), fatigue, drowsiness can be identified among the common symptoms. In older children, a sign of anemia is blue of the eye proteins, which is caused by thinning of the sclera. Other manifestations of the syndrome are also quite common – for example, craving for eating inedible or unprepared foods (chalk, minced meat, dry cereals). Periodic incontinence may occur, night or when laughing, coughing, jumping. Clinical manifestations become noticeable at the latent stage of the syndrome and progress along with its development. Cardiovascular disorders are characteristic of the late stage – the child may complain of dizziness and tinnitus.
Iron-deficiency syndrome, like any other pathological condition of the body, has special causes and prerequisites for its occurrence. Therefore, the goal of treatment is not only to restore the balance of microelements, but also to eliminate the factors that caused it.
It may appear on the background and as a result of diseases associated with disorders of the kidneys and liver, gastrointestinal tract, helminth infections, infectious and oncological pathologies. If you do not cure the disease, which is a provocateur of anemia, then restoring the normal balance of iron in the child’s body is impossible. In this case, therapy is based on combating the pathology that caused the abnormality.
Unfortunately, at the middle and difficult stages of the development of the syndrome, a special diet is not enough. For the treatment of anemia in children, the doctor may recommend drugs for oral administration due to their high efficacy and a relatively small number of undesirable side effects, as well as a convenient dosage form for all ages. Often, therapy lasts from 3 to 6 months, depending on the stage of anemia.
A full and balanced diet serves to meet the daily needs of the child’s body in the gland. Proper nutrition in the absence of other factors can prevent the development of iron deficiency anemia, but the diet cannot already compensate for the already existing trace element deficiency in the body.
Also, it is necessary to normalize the regimen of the child’s day, especially as regards time to sleep and wakefulness. Regular walks in the fresh air, moderate exercise (gymnastics, exercise therapy, swimming pool), massage and hardening – all of this refers to the common recommendations of doctors. Particular attention should be paid to the prevention of infectious and somatic diseases, which may result in iron deficiency in the body.